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Routing protocols overview

Router functions    are path determination and switching

 

Static addressing   Address does not change

Dynamic addressing         address can change, usually each time computer comes on line

 

RARP, BOOTP, and DHCP are used to get an IP address for a host to use.

 

RARP             often with dumb terminals (hosts with no hard drive)  ex: airport reservations

                        Must have RARP server

                        Workstation has his own MAC (burned into his NIC card)

Server sends host an IP address to use (until host shuts down, then host repeats process when it restarts)

 

BOOTP          host sends broadcast request (unless it knows servers IP address)

                        Must have BOOTP server

Server sends host an IP address to use (until host shuts down, then host repeats process when it restarts) 

BOOTP not really designed for this, uses UDP, is slow

 

DHCP                        successor to BOOTP, faster, better  

                        Can send entire host configuration with subnet mask, in one message

Process uses DHCPDISCOVER, DHCPOFFER, DHCPREQUEST, and DHCPACK packets.

 

ARP                only gets MAC address, NOT IP address (host has destination IP address)

reason for using; source host needs to have both IP and MAC address to send data to destination

host makes table – called ARP table

                        DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ARP and PROXY ARP

                        ARP                            host sends request for MAC address

Destination is on same wire (subnet, segment, etc) and replies with MAC address

 

                        PROXY ARP             host sends request for MAC

                                                            Destination is NOT on same segment as host

                                                            Router sends source host his own MAC address

 

Routed protocol     ex;  IP, IPX (NOVELL), and APPLETALK

                                    provides addressing functions Ex IP addresses

multiprotocol routing means router can have several tables, one for each routed protocol

 

Routing protocol    routers talk to each other and share route (table) information

                                    about the best routes to other networks

ex:   RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, and  OSPF (all these are interior gateway protocols)
DYNAMIC ROUTES –routes found through routing protocol messages
STATIC ROUTES – you type them in


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