THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
You are introduced to the structure and function of the skin and its epidermal derivatives, including hair, skin, glands, and nails. Factors contributing to skin color and skin superficial and deep wound healing are also discussed. A comparison of the structural and functional differences in thin and thick skin is discussed. The effects of aging on the integumentary system and developmental anatomy of the system are also included. Clinical applications that are described include skin grafts, psoriasis, skin color as a diagnostic clue, acne, impacted cerumen, hair removal, transdermal drug administration, and photodamage. Disorders of the skin that are discussed include skin cancer, burns, and pressure sores.
Chapter Outline and Objectives
1. Briefly list the functions of the integumentary system.
STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN
2. Describe the two principal parts of the skin.
3. Understand the structure and function of the subcutaneous layer.
4. Name the four principal types of cells found in the epidermis and their roles.
5. List the layers of the epidermis.
6. Describe the features of the stratum basale.
7. Just read a little on the use of skin grafts in epidermal injury.
8. Describe the features of the stratum spinosum.
9. Describe the features of the stratum granulosum.
10. Describe the features of the stratum lucidum.
11. Describe the features of the stratum corneum.
Keratinization and Growth of the Epidermis
12. Describe the process of keratinization and the role of hormones in the process.
13. Study briefly the events of psoriasis and the various treatments for this problem.
14. Be able to describe the two layers of the dermis in terms of the connective tissue cells and matrix, as well as the host of sensory receptors, immune cells, adipocytes, and functional extensions of the epidermis.
15. Know the effects of exposure to the sun on the skin.
16. Explain the basis for skin color function and variation.
17. Briefly discuss the use of skin color as a diagnostic clue for certain conditions.
ACCESSORY STRUCTURES OF THE SKIN
18. Discuss the location of hair in the adult.
Anatomy of a Hair
19. Describe the cell types involved in production of the hair root and follicle, and how they are related to the structures of the sheath layers.
20. List the accessory structures (nerves, erector pilli muscle, sebaceous gland, etc.) and their functional relation to the hair follicle.
21. Just read for knowledge the function of a depilatory and electrolysis in hair removal.
22. Discuss the role of melanin in hair color.
Functions of Hair
23. List and describe the functions of hair.
24. Discuss the role of hormones in the growth and loss of hair.
25. List the different types of skin glands.
26. Explain the distribution and size of glands over the body, as well as the content, function, and dysfunction of the sebum secretion.
27. Describe the cause, location, and possible outcome of acne.
28. Discuss the different structures, locations, and secretions of the two types of sudoriferous glands.
29. Tthe specialized location of ceruminous glands and the difference in purpose between cerumin and sebum.
30. Look at the effect of impacted cerumen on hearing and the treatment for the condition.
31. Describe the components of the fingernails and toenails and their growth pattern.
32. Examine pathologic nail conditions and the conditions they may indicate.
TYPES OF SKIN
33. Compare the structural and functional differences between thick and thin skin
FUNCTIONS OF SKIN
34. List the functions of skin.
35. Explain the role of the skin in helping to maintain the homeostasis of normal body temperature.
36. Describe the role of the skin in providing a physical, chemical, and biological barrier for protection.
37. Understand the types of cutaneous sensations that are associated with the skin.
Excretion and Absorption
38. Discuss the role of the skin in excretion of substances from the body and in absorption.
Synthesis of Vitamin D
39. Discuss the role of the skin in vitamin D synthesis.
MAINTAINING HOMEOSTASIS: SKIN WOUND HEALING
40. List the two kinds of skin wound healing, based on the depth of the injury.
Epidermal Wound Healing
41. Outline the causes, description, and steps involved in epidermal wound healing.
Deep Wound Healing
42. Outline the causes, description, and steps involved in deep wound healing.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
AGING AND THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
43. Describe the causes and effects for the following skin disorders: burns, sunburn, skin cancer, acne, and pressure sores.
44. Discuss the effect of overexposure to the sun on the skin.
45. Discuss the types of skin cancer and the risk factors for skin cancer.
46. Distinguish between the characteristics of first, second, and third degree burns, and their treatment.
47. Examine the role of the integumentary system in maintaining homeostasis throughout the body.