Chapter 5

THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

Chapter Synopsis

You are introduced to the structure and function of the skin and its epidermal derivatives, including hair, skin, glands, and nails. Factors contributing to skin color and skin superficial and deep wound healing are also discussed. A comparison of the structural and functional differences in thin and thick skin is discussed. The effects of aging on the integumentary system and developmental anatomy of the system are also included. Clinical applications that are described include skin grafts, psoriasis, skin color as a diagnostic clue, acne, impacted cerumen, hair removal, transdermal drug administration, and photodamage. Disorders of the skin that are discussed include skin cancer, burns, and pressure sores.

Chapter Outline and Objectives

INTRODUCTION

1.     Briefly list the functions of the integumentary system.

STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN

2.     Describe the two principal parts of the skin.

3.     Understand  the structure and function of the subcutaneous layer.

Epidermis

4.     Name the four principal types of cells found in the epidermis and their roles.

5.     List the layers of the epidermis.

Stratum Basale

6.     Describe the features of the stratum basale.

7.     Just read a little on  the use of skin grafts in epidermal injury.

Stratum Spinosum

8.     Describe the features of the stratum spinosum.

Stratum Granulosum

9.     Describe the features of the stratum granulosum.

Stratum Lucidum

10. Describe the features of the stratum lucidum.

Stratum Corneum

11. Describe the features of the stratum corneum.

Keratinization and Growth of the Epidermis

12. Describe the process of keratinization and the role of hormones in the process.

13. Study briefly  the events of psoriasis and  the various treatments for this problem.

Dermis

14. Be able to describe the two layers of the dermis in terms of the connective tissue cells and matrix, as well as the host of sensory receptors, immune cells, adipocytes, and functional extensions of the epidermis.

15. Know the effects of exposure to the sun on the skin.

The Structural Basis of Skin Color

16. Explain the basis for skin color function and variation.

17. Briefly discuss the use of skin color as a diagnostic clue for certain conditions.

ACCESSORY STRUCTURES OF THE SKIN

 

Hair

18. Discuss the location of hair in the adult.

Anatomy of a Hair

19. Describe the cell types involved in production of the hair root and follicle, and how they are related to the structures of the sheath layers.

20. List the accessory structures (nerves, erector pilli muscle, sebaceous gland, etc.) and their functional relation to the hair follicle.

21. Just read for knowledge  the function of a depilatory and electrolysis in hair removal.

Hair Growth

Hair Color

22. Discuss the role of melanin in hair color.

Functions of Hair

23. List and describe the functions of hair.

24. Discuss the role of hormones in the growth and loss of hair.

Skin Glands

25. List the different types of skin glands.

Sebaceous Glands                                                           

26. Explain the distribution and size of glands over the body, as well as the content, function, and dysfunction of the sebum secretion.

27. Describe the cause, location, and possible outcome of acne.

Sudoriferous Glands

28. Discuss the different structures, locations, and secretions of the two types of sudoriferous glands.

Ceruminous Glands

29. Tthe specialized location of ceruminous glands and the difference in purpose between cerumin and sebum.

30. Look at the effect of impacted cerumen on hearing and the treatment for the condition.

Nails

31. Describe the components of the fingernails and toenails and their growth pattern.

32. Examine pathologic nail conditions and the conditions they may indicate.

TYPES OF SKIN    

33. Compare the structural and functional differences between thick and thin skin

FUNCTIONS OF SKIN

34. List the functions of skin.

Thermoregulation

35. Explain the role of the skin in helping to maintain the homeostasis of normal body temperature.

Protection

36. Describe the role of the skin in providing a physical, chemical, and biological barrier for protection.

Cutaneous Sensations

37. Understand the types of cutaneous sensations that are associated with the skin.

Excretion and Absorption

38. Discuss the role of the skin in excretion of substances from the body and in absorption.

Synthesis of Vitamin D

39. Discuss the role of the skin in vitamin D synthesis.

MAINTAINING HOMEOSTASIS: SKIN WOUND HEALING

40. List the two kinds of skin wound healing, based on the depth of the injury.

Epidermal Wound Healing

41. Outline the causes, description, and steps involved in epidermal wound healing.

Deep Wound Healing

42. Outline the causes, description, and steps involved in deep wound healing.

DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

AGING AND THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

43. Describe the causes and effects for the following skin disorders: burns, sunburn, skin cancer, acne, and pressure sores.

44. Discuss the effect of overexposure to the sun on the skin.

DISORDERS; HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCES

Skin Cancer

45. Discuss the types of skin cancer and the risk factors for skin cancer.

Burns

46. Distinguish between the characteristics of first, second, and third degree burns, and their treatment.

FOCUS ON HOMEOSTASIS; THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

47. Examine the role of the integumentary system in maintaining homeostasis throughout the body.